Right to Repair Laws in the United States


What is the Right to Repair Movement?

The right to repair movement supports government legislation that allows consumers to modify or repair a product they purchased without restrictions imposed by the manufacturer. This means that consumers should be able to take their devices, such as smartphones, laptops, or even farm equipment, to any local repair shop or perform DIY repairs rather than being restricted to manufacturer-authorized repair centers.

The movement’s primary objectives include:

  • Making information available: Manufacturers should provide reasonable access to manuals, schematics, and software updates for consumers and independent repair shops.
  • Making parts and tools available: Manufacturers should make available the parts and tools necessary to service devices, including diagnostic tools, for third parties and individuals.
  • Allowing unlocking: The government should legalize unlocking, adapting, or modifying a device, allowing owners to install custom software.
  • Accommodating repair in the design: Devices should be designed in a way that makes repair possible.

The Current State of the Right to Repair Legislation

As of now, 25 states across the country have considered active right to repair legislation in 2021, demonstrating the widespread appeal of the policy. These bills aim to reform existing laws by requiring electronic equipment manufacturers to provide access to necessary items such as manuals, spare parts, diagnostics, and special tools so people can repair their devices.

In some states, the legislation specifically targets farm or medical equipment, while the bills apply more broadly in others. The introduction of these bills in various states signifies the increasing importance and relevance of the right to repair movement in the United States.

neon screwdriver to depict right to repair laws

The Executive Order on Promoting Competition in the American Economy

In July 2021, President Joe Biden signed an executive order that pushed the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to make third-party product repair easier. The executive order encourages the FTC to limit powerful equipment manufacturers from restricting people’s ability to use independent repair shops or perform DIY repairs, such as when tractor companies block farmers from repairing their tractors.

While the executive order is a significant step for the right to repair movement, it is not exhaustive and does not address all the aspects advocates would like to see. State and federal right to repair laws are still needed to ensure comprehensive consumer protection.

arm of protest to represent right to repair laws

The Benefits of the Right to Repair

There are several benefits to the right-to-repair movement, which include:

Economic Benefits

By allowing consumers to repair their devices, they can save money by not having to purchase new products as frequently. This can also help reduce waste by giving devices a longer lifespan. Additionally, the right to repair can promote competition in the market, potentially lowering repair costs for consumers.

Environmental Benefits

Easier access to repair can reduce electronic waste, as devices are repaired and reused instead of being thrown away and replaced. This can positively impact the environment by reducing waste generated and the resources required for new production.

Empowerment for Consumers and Independent Repair Shops

The right to repair movement aims to give consumers and independent repair shops the legal rights and access to resources necessary to repair various products. This can empower individuals and small businesses by allowing them to perform repairs themselves or offer repair services without being restricted by manufacturers.

Challenges and Opposition to the Right to Repair

While the right-to-repair movement has gained significant momentum, it faces opposition from various industry groups and manufacturers. Some of the main concerns raised by opponents include:

Intellectual Property Rights

Manufacturers argue that providing access to information, parts, tools, and equipment could risk their intellectual property rights. They contend this may lead to technology piracy and expose sensitive customer data to untrustworthy sources.

Safety Risks

Manufacturers also assert that repair restrictions are in place to protect consumers and workers from performing ill-advised repairs with limited knowledge, which could result in personal injury or property damage.

Design Restrictions

Some manufacturers argue that right to repair laws may impose design restrictions on their products, forcing them to create devices that are more accessible for DIY or independent repairs but may not align with consumer demands for smaller, lighter, or more aesthetically pleasing products.

Quality of Repairs

Manufacturers often question the quality of repairs performed by unauthorized repair facilities and independent repair shops, claiming that authorized repair centers provide superior service.

The Future of Right to Repair Legislation

With the growing importance of the right to repair laws in the United States, more states are expected to introduce and pass legislation supporting this movement. As more states adopt these laws, manufacturers will likely need to adapt and comply with the requirements, providing consumers and independent repair shops with access to information, parts, and tools to repair their devices.

Moreover, the executive order signed by President Biden signifies the increasing recognition and support of the right-to-repair movement at the federal level. This may lead to further legislative action and policy changes that strengthen the right to repair for consumers and independent repair shops nationwide.

Ultimately, the right-to-repair movement seeks to empower consumers, promote competition, and reduce waste by ensuring that individuals and small businesses have the legal rights and access to resources necessary to repair various products. As the movement continues to gain momentum, lawmakers and industry stakeholders must take a comprehensive and balanced approach to the right-to-repair legislation, considering the benefits and challenges involved.


Activism, Apple, Consumer Tech, Right To Repair, Tech

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